70 Responses

  1. Jagdeesh at |

    So interesting :)

    Reply
  2. John McDonnell at |

    Great list. Imagine if the library at Alexandria had not burned, what treasures of knowledge we would have! And the Antikythera Mechanism indicates a knowledge of technology that we never knew about the ancients. Fascinating!

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    1. Juancho at |
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  3. Paul at |

    Great list Evan Andrews. Some say James Black the creator of the original Bowie knife knew the secret to Damascus Steel. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Black_(blacksm

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  4. 711 at |

    Been following the site for some time and this is the most interesting article so far, good job!

    Particularly liked the number 10th, one of my life goals is to get my hands on one of those violins… the biggest problem is that even after acquiring the inordinate amount of cash I would still have to find one that is for sale ><

    …on a second thought, it would probably sit under my desk for years and years without a single play session, perhaps it's best to drop this dead and instead pursue the recreation of number three!!! I am sure I would be able to buy all Stradivari's in the world if I managed that ^^

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  5. katefan at |

    Great list, very interesting!

    Reply
  6. Angelo at |

    About #5, the Damascus Steel… It was discovered what made it stronger back in mid-late 1950s actually. The process of forging Damascus Steel included cooling the blade by plunging it into a prisoner or an animal they were slaughtering. In the mid 1950s, a metallurgist (who's name escapes me right now) decided to try cooling the steel blades by plunging them into cow hides. He wound up with strengthened steel that he attributed to various micro-organisms that strengthened the steel. In 2006, researchers at Technische Universität Dresden proved this correct and further explained that the micro-organisms caused the formation of the carbon nanotubes and cementite nanowires that give Damascus Steel its strength.

    Reply
    1. C64 at |

      Got a source? Your comment made me curious to know more, but I can't find anything exactly related to your claim.

      The Wikipedia section talking about the Dresden study says, "This section appears to contain speculation and unjustified claims."

      A Nation Geographic article in 2006 says the Dresden study is speculation, and doesn't mention prisoners or slaughtered animals.

      http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/11/0

      And this page, Paufler (one of the Dresden researchers) himself says, "At high temperatures, the impurities in the Indian ores could have catalysed the growth of nanotubes from carbon in the burning wood and leaves used to make the wootz, Paufler suggests. These tubes could then have filled with cementite to produce the wires in the patterned blades, he says."

      http://www.nature.com/news/2006/061113/full/news0

      Sounds like he's attributing the nanotubes to the impurities in the wootz steel and the forging process, not the cooling process. This agrees with how the list is originally written.

      Awesome list by the way. One of the best on the site!

      Reply
    2. Sam at |

      The whole article about damascus steel is wrong. Wootz and damascus are two completely different things. Wootz is made by smelting ore in a crucible and then flattening it out. The lines in the steel are created by martensite distorting the grain. This was a Perzian technique and is still very much alive. It has been rediscovered many years ago.

      Damascus steel has nothing to do with its metallurgical properties. It is just a name for a forge welding type that originated in the city of damascus. Modern blacksmith are perfectly able to craft patternwelded blades that match even the most precious of old damascener blades. The myth of quenching blades in a slave is just that: a myth and I can assure you that micro organisms in the quenching medium have no influence whatsoever on the hardnes or tensile strenght of a blade. The only thing that really influences steel is it's temperature and the period at wich certain temperatures are maintained. I'm a Belgian blacksmith myself and the techniques to create wootz, damascus and pattern welded blades is very widely practised. In the USa the ABS can give you more info on the subject.

      Reply
  7. hihowareyou at |

    Good article. One of the more interesting ones I have read. I would like to see more articles like this one. Kudos to you author.

    Reply
  8. mark at |

    good article!! informative

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  9. MergedLoki at |

    cool list, fun fact about the Stradivari Violins.

    Alot of these relics have been found now to not be crafted by the Stradivari family.

    But OTHER craftsmen who admired the talent/skill of the Stradivari violins would attempt to copy the method and label it Stradivari as an homage and to give credit to the family.

    therefore many of the supposed violins are copies themselves and not the real deal.

    Reply
  10. Charlie at |

    This is a terrible list! Half of the things aren't technologies and the other half are vague and pointless. I mean, napalm as your number one lost technology of all time? Why! How about the steam power the Greeks they never bothered to convert into engines instead?

    I'm going to break it down here:

    –Not a technology: Library of Alexandria (Although tragic), Greek anti-depressants, Stradivarius violins (It was the wood! there's no lost technology!) Roman birth control (Although so highly useful for womens emancipation and stuff it probably does deserve it's place here.)

    —Boring/Disturbing: Teleharmonium (Such an odd thing to put down, why not substitute for any one of the works of Nikolai Tesla that was lost when his laboratory burned?) Greek Fire (Apart from it being on fire and cool, why is a brutish instrument of mass death any loss to humanity?)

    —Interesting and relevant: Damascene Steel, Antikythra mechanism, Roman cement, Apollo stuff.

    Sorrry, but make it called 'Six Great Losses to Humanity and Technological Development' and take out everything I've slated and your list would be fine. (As the name change lets you keep the Library and the Silphium)

    Reply
  11. Jeremy Kitchen at |

    your silly digg/redit/su/buzz/whatever bar blocks the entire left hand side of the article. Way to put off a potential reader!

    Reply
    1. TopTenzMaster at |

      What browser are you using. I don't see any issues and I have checked with mac and pc on all browsers. Does it happen all the time?

      Reply
  12. scott at |

    I pearsonaly think that the orignal katana should be on the list. It was the most well crafted sword in history and we have no idea the process of making it.

    Reply
    1. GodOffal at |

      The original art wasn’t lost and its still practiced today. They would put in several hundred folds in the metal while forging it on human bones. I wish i could remember the name of the documentary i watched about it, but you can still get one crafted, you can commission a sword to be made with you bones when you die. you should be able to find the documentary about it fairly easy though.

      Reply
  13. Nadeem Khan at |

    really cool !!!

    Reply
  14. Rick at |

    You forgot the Apple PowerBook Duo and its dock!

    Reply
  15. Christy at |

    Great list! I found it astonishing & sad that some of this knowledge is lost. When I visited Savannah, the guides said that both the recipe for the famous Savannah bricks & the recipe for the unusual pavement made from burnt/crushed limestone/shells had been lost shortly after the Civil War.

    Reply
  16. dglenn at |

    Two major quibbles, one of which you acknowledge already right in the article:

    (1) Although the loss of the library at Alexandria was a tragic blow to the advancement of human knowledge, it is, as you pointed out right at the top of that section, not a technology. Should've been a footnote or afterword, with something else taking its place in the list.

    (2) Although all three Telharmonia are lost, the technology of the Telharmonium is not — it's the same technology used in the Hammond electric (not electronic) organs that were so important to the sound of 1960s and 1970s popular music (e.g. the Hammond B3 and M3). I don't know of any still being built (the Hammond X3 emulates the sound of the earlier tone-wheel organs electronically), but plenty of tone-wheel Hammonds are still around, still being played.

    The tone-wheel electric organ is a fascinating technology (or at least I think so, though perhaps the folks I frequently babble to about it are bored), but not yet lost.

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  17. Reynold Weidenaar at |

    The assertion that the Telharmonium's "massive energy consumption strained early power grids" is not the case. The second Telharmonium (operated in New York from 1906 to 1908) was powered by a 185-hp DC motor. Since most of the alternators at any given time were on open circuit, the load on the motor averaged only about 100 hp. This was not a large power draw and was easily supplied to Telharmonic Hall. The main reasons for failure on the demand side were that (1) the instrument could only create the sounds of an organ, though it was promoted as replacing an orchestra, (2) the sound quality was somewhat annoying, and (3) experimental broadcasts were heralding the advent of radio which could offer speech and song, whereas the Telharmonium was strictly instrumental. See my book "Magic Music from the Telharmonium" (Scarecrow Press, 1995).

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  18. Frank Talk at |

    It really seems the Top 10 Lost Technologies could aptly be re-titled as Cool Stuff White People Thought of and Lost Somehow. I mean come on, throw the coloureds a bone here. I'm sorry, you did. #9 starts off by marveling at the genius of ancient europe's beacon of light and aspiration towards civilisation, "The sheer sophistication of the technology wielded by the ancient Greeks and Romans is often quite astonishing,…" But it is later revealed rather slyly that, "Nepenthe was said to have originated in Egypt,…"

    Never mind that the civilisations of KMT, Kush, Axum and Nubia ALL pre-date europe's best attempts at civilised living by thousands of years. Never mind that the greeks and romans literally studied at the feet of these societies for hundreds of years but could not sustain their own ambitions for civilisation for a fraction of the duration of the civilisations of their teachers.

    Sometimes I want to give you all the benefit of the doubt, maybe the illusory farce of white supremacy is wearing off and you all will soon begin to see clearly. But time and time again I am brought back to this shanty reality.

    Real class act you guys.

    Reply
    1. Irene at |

      The article mentions coloureds a lot.

      Damascus Steel was invented by Arabs and obviously forged with materials from India and/or Sri Lanka..

      The library of Alexandria was in Egypt.

      Silphium only grew in Libya which is in the Middle East.

      Greek Fire was used in the Byzantine Empire which is in the Middle East as well.

      Cement was not only used by Romans, but also by Persians, Assyrians and Egyptians.

      Reply
      1. Weatherlawyer at |

        I’d have thought the pyramids and several other wonders of the world should have been included.
        Didn’t Julius Caesar think the Celts believed the sky was falling on them?

        A much vaunted forgotten book on rocket science written in the 17th Century proved them correct meanwhile excerpts from the book are being rediscovered as new physics makes the repeat discovery.

        What was understood by the Music of The Spheres, could it have been planetary and stellar magneto-spheres?
        Or was it just astrological mumbo jumbo?
        (My field, that one. If anyone has any idea, please feel free to contact me.)

        Apparently modern medicine is based on American Indian medicine. One student even succeeding in its use to treat cholera.

        What happened to the recipe for creating the first platinum crucibles?

        What was lost to the NASA when it scrapped all its card readers for the gold in them and promptly lost all the data the cards held but nobody could read?

        There are plenty of stories of successful technologies where secrecy was worth more than a patent.

        Reply
    2. eddie at |

      That's just sad – what have "you" done in the last 2,000 years that isn't disastrous?

      Reply
  19. JC De Guzman at |

    this is so true ;O

    Reply
  20. virginia at |

    Two 'technologies' that were also lost were the blue the Chinese used to make the blue in 'famille vert' porclain, a distinctive blue and the method for making Russian leather, considered the finest leather in the world and worth fortunes in the 19th century.

    Reply
  21. Apuleius at |

    Regarding Stradivaris, take it from a professional violinist: Yes, Stradivaris are great! If played (extremely) well they sound unbelievable. I would love to have one. Well, at least my teacher at university let me try his.

    But there are quite some violin makers whose instruments are on par with Stradivaris, the best example is the Guarneri family especially Guarneri del Gesu. Search for his "Il Cannone". If could get just one violin I would get this one.

    Even if the "secrets" of Stradivari seem lost nowadays you can find mdern instruments who really can compete with Stradivari's violins, they just are not as expensive and are – because of this – no status symbols. Christian Tetzlaff, one of the world's leading violinists, who owns a Stradivari quite often leaves it at home, because his modern violin, built as a copy of his Stradivari by the german violin maker Greiner, sounds just as well and is nowhere as sensitive to changes in climate and humidity. Finicky instruments can really be a pain if there is a concert and your violin just doesn't feel like it today.

    Reply
  22. Clark Neily at |

    Interesting. I worked on both Gemini and Apollo as a NASA employee In Houston. I think the technology which has been mainly lost falls into two categories: (a) the rationale for doing or designing things in a certain way; and (b) how to design and manufacture complicated mechanical assemblies that are HIGHLY reliable (at least for 7-10 days).

    Examples in (a): the design of the Apollo lunar rendezvous profile; the exact form of the avionics architecture for the Space Shuttle orbiter. Examples in (b): the Gemini reaction control system (RCS, which initially gave a lot of trouble); the Apollo lunar module ascent engine assembly.

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  23. Frank from Texas at |

    I think the authors are giving NASA too much credit. I'd heard from several sources that the plans for the Saturn V rocket, were given away to a Boy Scout paper drive. The story went on that the intention was to make very sure that nobody tried to backtrack on the Shuttle program.

    So, the plans weren't lost; they were thrown out.

    Has anyone else heard anything along those lines?

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  24. Clark Neily at |

    Interesting. I worked on Gemini and Apollo as a NASA employee in Houston, and later on the design of the space shuttle as an engineer in industry. It seems to me that the “lost technology” tends to fall into two categories: (a) the specific rationale for a particular design or way of doing things; and (b) how to design, manufacture and qualify HIGHLY reliable mechanical assemblies.

    Examples in (a): the design of the Apollo lunar rendezvous operational plan; the specific architecture of the shuttle orbiter avionics system. Examples in (b): the Gemini reaction control system (RCS, which initially gave a lot of trouble); the Apollo lunar module ascent and command module service propulsion system engine assemblies (no backup, can’t get home without them).

    Reply
  25. Jason at |

    Greek fire was used in the early 8th century during the two Arab sieges of Constantinople, not the 11th as stated in the article.

    Also, as for the hippie whining about it, Greek fire saved Western civilization from Islamic conquest…so piss off!

    Reply
    1. Grey Fox at |

      Not to mention that it was never actually lost – I have two different recipes, one Rennaissance, laying around somewhere.

      Reply
  26. Richard R at |

    "Like so many technologies of the Greeks and Romans, the recipe for concrete was lost during the descent into the Dark Ages"

    There is no such thing as "Dark Age"; this is a myth perpetuated by Victorian historians who viewed the middle ages with scorn. The medievals built universities, financed astronomy, Advanced medical discoveries, rediscovered the Classics, and formulated some of the most sophisticated philosophical systems/arguments.

    Sociologist Rodney Stark has written extesively on this subject.

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    1. Andrew at |

      Dark Ages are the time, most specifically in greater Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire. When the empire fell, the continuous spread of knowledge and economic wealth fell of drastically. Societies changed and Christianity prospered. Ancient knowledge tapered off and quickly political and religious powers were bound together and created a submissive society. There no longer existed creative freedom as before and “advanced” medical discoveries consisted of first weighing your spiritual health and applying the appropriate remedy. There were hospitals, but they were in part designed as quarantine during the plagues. There were no actual advancements until later. Religious oppression grabbed hold then, and since has refused to let to even though the world has changed.

      Reply
      1. Jason at |

        Got original sources for that? No? Didn’t think so.

        As most educated people know, the Eastern Roman Empire didn’t fall and Greek knowledge was preserved in the Monasteries, every text we have was copied down at some point by a monk.

        Politics and religion were quite entwined in the Roman world, emperors were ascribed divinity, and it was a bishop called Ambrose who forced a Roman emperor to repent of murdering 5000. Rome had a slave society, which is a pretty submissive way to be.

        Reply
        1. Andrew at |

          Sure, there’s lots of sources out there. Check out Wikipedia for a start as they list sources and is a pretty good place to start.

          Quick wiki search found “decline of the roman empire” and “medieval medicine”

          The Byzantine empire is not the Roman empire. Some knowledge was preserved, but most lost. And as you pointed out, that knowledge was preserved in monasteries, out of the hands of the people and preserved in the monarchy. People got so caught up in religion and gave up on society. They were all waiting to be saved and go to heaven.

          Rome had an ordered society, that worked.

          Reply
          1. Jason at |

            http://www.rome.info/history/empire/fall/

            Funny how many of the ingredients in Rome’s fall are present in modern America.

            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decline_of_the_Roman_Empire

            You invoke a monocausal explanation for the decline of Western Rome. Even Wikipedia acknowledges that there are many schools of thought on that. Not least that Rome was in decline long before Christianity had made any significant inroads into society.

            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_Ages_(historiography)
            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_medieval

            Strangely enough, many scholars dispute whether the term “dark age” should be applied to the Early Medieval Period, except in regards to the lack of written history coming out of that time. A paucity of literature and cultural artifacts do not a “dark age” make. The pejorative form, implying that they were periods of ignorance and superstition, is long gone from scholarly circles.

            From the wiki.
            “[M]isconceptions such as: “the Church prohibited autopsies and dissections during the Middle Ages”, “the rise of Christianity killed off ancient science”, and “the medieval Christian church suppressed the growth of natural philosophy”, are all cited by Ronald Numbers as examples of widely popular myths that still pass as historical truth, although they are not supported by current historical research.”

            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine_Empire
            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine_medicine

            For as long as the Byzantine Empire existed they considered themselves Romans of Rome. The article on medicine says that, contrary to your claims, the Byzantines did make advances in medicine over the Greek traditions they inherited. In Constantinople in the twelfth century they had two hospitals, staffed by doctors (including women) trained in the University of Constantinople which were places which practiced systematic treatment, with separate wards based on disease.

            Do you actually read the articles you tell others to read? History is far more complex than the simple black and white you try to paint it.

            Reply
  27. Brett Glass at |

    The technology of the Antikythera Mechanism wasn't lost; it was just the Ptolemaic model of celestial bodies. And the mechanism has been completely reverse-engineered and reproduced; see the description in a recent issue of Scientific American.

    Reply
  28. Jarett Carter at |

    Great stuff Mr. Andrews, keep em' coming. Don't pay attention to that doosher Charlie up there. It's a lot easier to criticize work than it is to create a top ten.

    Reply
  29. Nitpicker at |

    #10 – Nitre is saltpeter

    Reply
  30. Jeff at |

    A great list for idiots who do research on wikipedia…. Most of the items presented here are well understood curiosities, and from what I understand- none are “lost technologies.”

    Reply
  31. happster at |

    a little research on damascus steel will show you that shotguns were made from it in the early 1800s into the 1900s.Shotgun shell boxes of modern ammo used to have warnings on them not to use in damascus barrels because they were inferior steel and may explode.Not hardly the fine steel your article claims.

    Reply
    1. FMH at |

      Nice, I just wanted to write the same thing. In my hunting class they still had some damascener stell guns to show us how they looked so we would know not to use them anymore.

      Reply
    2. Andrew at |

      Damascus even today more typically refers to layered steel created for aesthetics. They are two different things.

      Reply
    3. Andrew at |

      Damascus steel only works well when used in the right way, for swords. Not for looks, as in the shotguns. The layers have to be perpendicular to the force applied, and the flexibility in the other direction makes it more resistant to breakage.

      If not maintained, it could oxidize between the layers and weaken, causing the shotgun to fail.

      Reply
  32. alex at |

    I read up on damascus steel somewhere that back in those days the blades were so strong because certain molecules in the smoke in what they were burning to forge the metal were weaved in to the blade. The guy who discovered this actually just got a Nobel prize

    Reply
    1. Andrew at |

      All it was was carbon and occasionally they got naturally formed carbon nanotubes in it. It’s called carburizing and is still a common heat treat process for lower carbon steels. It was the way they did it more than anything else that made it better.

      Reply
  33. Bill at |

    I know I’m a little late in posting a response to this great list, so it will probably never be read, never-the-less I have to say this: Nepenthe is Marijuana, case closed.

    Reply
    1. Josean at |

      DUUUUUUUUUDE You just found that technology. LOL hiding in our own ashtrays.

      Reply
  34. Jim at |
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  35. Michael at |

    It’s “hypothesis” not “theory”.

    Why is that important? It’s important when the Palin crowd wants to dismiss the Germ Theory of Disease, The Theory of Evolution, The Theory of Universal Gravitation, etc. by saying “But it’s just a theory”.

    Reply
  36. Gareth at |

    I once saw an interesting blind test of violins. Several experts were blindfolded and listened to a group of violins and asked to identify which was the strad. Not one of them got it right.

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  37. Gemfyre at |

    Another interesting “lost technology” is the cure for Scurvy. This article about it is fascinating – http://idlewords.com/2010/03/scott_and_scurvy.htm

    Reply
  38. Arnum at |

    Thanks for the good read. What are some of the plants that are related to Silphium?

    Reply
  39. Realitypod at |

    All the old technologies are interested to see and it was very bad that some of them are lost now-a-days. Especially the library of Alexandria.

    Reply
  40. Crystal at |

    Silphium (or Laserpicium, sometimes just called laser) did not go extinct or was not revered primarily because of it’s use as an abortifacient (in fact, the only mention of its use in this manner was by Pliny). It was used in medicine but more often it was used as the main spice in cooking. It was highly prized by top cooks and the wealthy demanded it to season their meals. The oldest known cookbook, titled Apicius after Marcus Gavius Apicius, uses laser in the majority of its recipes.

    It became very expensive because it was over-farmed and they were unable to cultivate it. Caesar Nero is rumored to have eaten the last known sprig of laser.

    Today the resin asfoetida is considered to have the closest taste to that of laser.

    Reply
  41. monster beat at |

    Let us not forget that Reagan’s future vp (Bush) and cia chief (Casey) met with the Ayatolla Khomeini behind the back of the then-current Carter administration (treason) and arranged for Iran to keep the American hostages until after the election. In return Iran got, at the very least, a conduit thru which to illegally receive missiles and other armaments–which came to light when traitor Ollie North got busted taking the missile $$$ and giving it to friends in Central America who turned out, naturally enough, to be drug smugglers USA-bound. Ah, the good old days…

    Reply
  42. CL Palmer at |

    Monster beat, what evidence do you have for this hypothesis? Moreover, what the hell does it have to do with anything in this article? If I had to guess, Khomeini was afraid of what Reagan would do and thought Carter was a wimp (right on both counts). Qadafi had to learn the hard way.

    I agree that many of the items on this list do not qualify as technology, but are nonetheless interesting.

    Michael, why do you lead in with the Germ Theory of Disease when you know as well as I do neither Palin nor any of her contemporaries deny it. I suppose you mean to make her look ridiculous, and thus equate that with questioning evolution. Questioning gravity? Sorry, never happened. I think you sandwiched evolution in there to give it greater credibility than it deserves. I have no religious objection to evolution per se, but there are just too many holes in it for me to be comfortable endorsing it as accurate. Just having an understanding of all of the changes happening on a nigh-constant basis to the classification system makes me wary of assuming relationships between organisms, alive or extinct. Assuming that any fossil (or tiny fragment of a fossil) that in any way resembles something primate is an ancestor of Man is statistically ridiculous, even if you assume evolutionary theory to be accurate. Both gravity and germs can be observed and verified under laboratory conditions. Interspecies evolution cannot. All species change a bit from generation to generation; I’m a little taller than my dad. Still, they don’t change into new species. As for sub-species, those are known as breeds or races. Yes, there are many races of men. Insisting that this is evolutionary in nature implies that some might be more advanced than others, which is how many racists justify their hatred. If, after all, sub-species become new species, and we ascended from simpler into more complex lifeforms, we assume that further evolution is an advancement. Since evolutionary scientists claim that the human species originated in Africa and that the other races evolved as groups left Africa, it would imply that Africans are less evolved. This, in my view, is racism. I cannot endorse it.

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  43. Doni ALBO at |

    Of all top ten i rate of all the Alexandria library cause it contained majority of this in his rich archives, so major of all loses is Alexandria library which many of early civilizations vanished together with its records.

    Reply
  44. Julianna at |

    Only partial truth on the NASA loss of schematics and other documents surrounding the Apollo and Gemini programs. A HUGE number of documents and hand drawn schematics still existed into at least the late 1970s, but the contractor companies were having to pay to store them – I mean store huge rooms full of documents (ie, very expensive). They kept asking NASA to either move the docs somewhere or foot the bill for their storage, and NASA didn’t. Eventually they told NASA they were going to destroy them all by a particular date if nothing was done, and nothing was done, so they were destroyed. Yes, really. Dad was really ticked when they did they – everybody at Marshall Space Flight Center (and presumably the other centers as well) knew about it, but nobody had budget to convert it all to microfilm nor space to keep the originals, so they were trashed. Sad, eh?

    Reply
  45. E at |

    What? No mention of Tesla’s technology?

    Reply
  46. vinu sharma at |

    Is it only about the technologies of Europe ….why there is no mention of the great asian technologies?? and by the way mentioning the greek fire as no. 1 make no sence cause it was used only for distructive purposes or so

    Reply
    1. TopTenz Master at |

      We are often accused of being biased to the USA, this is our first complaint about being biased towards Europe. I guess this means we are offending more people than ever. ;-)

      Reply
  47. rahul at |

    yeah and what about the ancient indian technology to produce rust free iron???

    Reply
  48. Mark Boisvert at |

    Nice article, but not one mention of Nikola Tesla? Really?

    Reply
  49. Gun Trust Texas at |

    I wouldn’t dispute that the reputation of the Stradivarius violins is overrated – it’s hard to imagine how it wouldn’t be. But that study doesn’t preclude the assertion that the Stradivarius violins were at least somewhat better than other violins of its time or even of those made relatively recently. That’s where the unusually dense wood – a byproduct of the particular time and place in which it was made – might be a factor.

    Reply
  50. 100 ml e liquid at |

    GOOD.

    Reply
  51. karen patrick at |

    The title of this video is “10 Lost Technologies”, so why are a number of things in this video not technologies (like Atlantis) or not lost (either because we know how they worked, like Damascus Steel and the Antikythera Mechanism, or because they’re mythical with no basis in fact, like Atlantis and Vimanas)??

    Reply

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