Alchemy is the ancient science of attempting to transform lead into gold. Alchemists also sought to create the Philosopher’s Stone, which would guarantee eternal life. While none of these people have been proven to have been successful, their efforts in chemical research gave birth to modern chemistry. The names associated with alchemy in history are typically men; most notably, Nicolas Flamel (yes, Harry Potter fans, that dude was real).
However, many women were far ahead of their time, and were well accomplished scientists and alchemists in their own right. Many of the discoveries made by these female alchemists changed the course of history, even if their due credit has long been forgotten.