Top 10 Civilizations That Mysteriously Disappeared


Throughout our history, most civilizations have either met a slow demise or were wiped out by natural disasters or invasion. But there are a few societies whose disappearance has scholars truly stumped:

10. The Olmec

Olmec head (replica) in situ at La Venta

One of the first Mesoamerican societies, the Olmec inhabited the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico. The first signs of the Olmec are around 1400 BC in the city of San Lorenzo, the main Olmec settlement which was supported by two other centers, Tenochtitlan and Potrero Nuevo. The Olmec were master builders with each of the major sites containing ceremonial courts, house mounds, large conical pyramids and stone monuments including the colossal head that they are most known for. The Olmec civilization relied heavily on trade, both between different Olmec regions and with other Mesoamerican societies. Because they were one of the earliest and most advanced Mesoamerican cultures at the time, they are often considered the mother culture of many other Mesoamerican cultures.

Where did they go?

Around 400 BC the eastern half of the Olmec’s lands was depopulated- possibly due to environmental changes. They may have also relocated after volcanic activity in the area. Another popular theory is that they were invaded, but no one knows whom the invaders might be.

9. The Nabateans

A photograph of the inscription using the name "Rekem", the Nabatean name for Petra, sited opposite the entrance to the Siq in Petra, but now covered by the abutments of a concrete bridge.

A photograph of the inscription using the name “Rekem”, the Nabatean name for Petra, sited opposite the entrance to the Siq in Petra, but now covered by the abutments of a concrete bridge.

The Nabateans were a Semitic culture that inhabited parts of Jordan, Canaan and Arabia from around the sixth century BC. They are most widely known as the builders of the city of Petra, which served as their capital. Petra is an impressive city carved out of the cliff side with the crown jewel being the Khazneh, or Treasury, a giant Greek inspired building. The Nabateans’ wealth was gained by being a major stop on a complex trading network, through which they traded ivory, silk, spices, precious metals, gems, incense, sugar perfume and medicine. Because of the extent of the trade route, the Nabatean culture was highly influenced by Hellenistic Greece, Rome, Arabia and Assyria. Unlike other societies of their time, there was no slavery and every member of society contributed in the work duties.

Where did they go?

During the fourth century AD, the Nabateans abandoned Petra and no one really knows why. Archeological evidence proves that their exodus was an organized one that was unrushed, which leads us to believe that they were not driven out of Petra by another culture. The most likely explanation is that when the trade routes they relied on moved north they could no longer sustain their civilization and left Petra behind.

8. The Aksumite Empire

Ruins of Dungur near Aksum

Ruins of Dungur near Aksum

The Aksumite Empire began in the first century AD in what is now Ethiopia and is believed to be the home of the Queen of Sheba. Aksum was a major trade center with exports of ivory, agricultural resources and gold being traded throughout the Red Sea trade network and onward to the Roman Empire and east towards India. Because of this, Aksum was a very wealthy society and was the first African culture to issue its own coinage, which in ancient times was a sign of great importance. The most recognizable monuments of Aksum are the stelae, giant carved obelisks that acted as the grave markers of kings and nobles. Early Aksumites worshipped several gods but their main god was called Astar. In 324 AD, King Ezana II was converted to Christianity and from then on Aksum was a zealously Christian culture, and is even allegedly the home of the Ark of the Covenant.

Where did they go?

According to local legend, a Jewish Queen named Yodit defeated the Aksumite Empire and burned its churches and literature. However, others believe that southern pagan queen Bani al-Hamwiyah led to the Aksumite decline. Other theories include climate change, trade isolation and over farming leading to starvation.

7.The Mycenaeans

Image result for Mycenaeans

Growing out of the Minoan civilization, the Myceanaeans merged around 1600 BC in southern Greece. Being spread out over two islands and the southern mainland, the Myceaneans built and invaded many major cities like Mycenae, Tiryns, Pylos, Athens, Thebes, Orchomenus, Iolkos and Knossos. Many Greek myths are centered around Mycenae including the legend of King Agamemnon, who led the Greek forces during the Trojan War. The Myceaneans were a dominant naval power and used their naval prowess for trade with other nations as well as for military endeavors. Because of a lack of natural resources, the Myceaneans imported many goods and turned them into sellable items and therefore became master craftsmen, known throughout the Aegean for their weapons and jewelry.

Where did they go?

No one knows for sure, but one theory is that unrest between the peasant class and the ruling class led to the end of the Myceaneans. Other point to disruptions in trade routes, or natural factors like earthquakes. But the most popular theory is that they were invaded by a civilization from the north like the Dorians (who settled in the area after the fall of the Myceaneans) or the Sea People (who at the time were migrating from the Balkans to the Middle East).

6. The Khmer Empire

French Map of Khmer Empire under Jayavarman VII

French Map of Khmer Empire under Jayavarman VII

The Khmer Empire grew out of the kingdom of Chenla in what is now Cambodia around the 9th century AD and became one of the most powerful empires in Southeast Asia. The empire is known to most people as the civilization that built Angkor, Cambodia’s capital city. The Khmer were an incredibly powerful and wealthy culture who were open to several belief systems including Hinduism, Mahayana Buddhism and Theravada Buddhism, which were the empire’s official religions. Their power also included military might as they fought many wars against the Annamese and Chams.

Where did they go?

The decline of the Khmer Empire can be attributed to any combination of several factors. The first being that the empire was ruled by a devarajo or god king, but with introduction of Theravada Buddhism, which teaches self enlightenment, the government was challenged. This led to a lack of a desire to work for the devarajo which impacted the amount of food being produced. During the reign of Jayavarman VII, an elaborate road network was built to make it easier to transport goods and troops throughout the Empire. But some scholars believe that these roads worked against them, making it easier for invaders like the Ayuthaya to get straight to Angkor.

5.The Cucuteni-Trypillian Culture

In Romania they are the Cucuteni, in the Ukraine they are the Trypillians and in Russia they are the Tripolie: a late Neolithic culture that flourished between 5500 BC and 2750 BC. At their height, the Cucuteni-Trypillian society built the largest Neolithic settlements in Europe, with some housing up to 15,000 people. One of the biggest mysteries of this culture is that every 60 to 80 years they would burn their entire village and reconstruct it on top of the old one. The Cucuteni-Typillian culture was matriarchal, the women were the heads of the household and also did the agricultural work and made pottery, textiles and clothing. The men were hunters, tool makers and were responsible for looking after domestic animals. Their religion was centered around the Great Mother Goddess who was a symbol of motherhood and agricultural fertility. They also worshipped the bull (strength, fertility and the sky) and a snake (eternity and eternal movement).

Where did they go?

One of the main theories about the end of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture is the Kurgan hypothesis, which states that they were conquered by the warlike Kurgan culture. However, more recent archeology points to a dramatic climate change which could have led to one of the worst droughts in European history– devastating for a culture that relied heavily on farming.

4. Clovis

Clovis points from the Rummells-Maske Site, 13CD15, Cedar County, Iowa, These are from the Iowa Office of the State Archaeologist collection.

Clovis points from the Rummells-Maske Site, 13CD15, Cedar County, Iowa, These are from the Iowa Office of the State Archaeologist collection.

A prehistoric Native American people, the Clovis culture dates back to 10,000 BC. Centered in southern and central plains of North America they are archeologically recognized by chipped flint points called Clovis points. They used these points on the end of spears to hunt big game like mammoth and bison and small game like deer and rabbits. The Clovis people were the first human inhabitants of the New World and are considered the ancestors of all North and South American indigenous cultures. Many scholars believe that they crossed the Beringia land bridge from Siberia to Alaska during the ice age and then headed south to warmer climates.

Where did they go?

There are several theories around the disappearance of the Clovis culture. The first states that a decrease in megafauna along with less mobility in their culture led them to branch off and form new cultural groups, like the Folsom culture. Another theory is that the mammoth and other species became extinct due to over hunting, leaving the Clovis without a viable food source. The final theory revolves around a comet that crashed to the earth around the Great Lakes region and significantly affected the Clovis culture.

3. The Minoans

Minoan Thera great volcanic eruption which occurred between 1642–1540 BC

Minoan Thera great volcanic eruption which occurred between 1642–1540 BC

Named after the legendary King Minos, the Minoans inhabited what is now Crete from 3000 to 1000 BC. In Greek mythology, Minoa was the land of Cretan Bull and it’s son, the Minotaur- a mythical half-man-half-bull that lived in the labyrinth and killed anyone who entered. In reality, the Minoans were the first known civilization in Europe. Today all that is left of the Minoan civilization are their palaces and the artifacts found within. The Minoan civilization was one of social organization, art and commerce. Early Minoans spoke a language that we call Linear A, which during later periods was replaced by Linear B, both of which were based on pictographs. There is no evidence of any military culture found in the Minoan palaces and it seems their power was purely economical. Even though the Minoans fell, their culture was inherited first by the Myceaneans and from there by the Hellenistic Greeks.

Where did they go?

Many scholars believe that the Minoans were wiped out by a volcanic eruption on the island of Thera (now Santorini), but there is evidence that they survived. However, the eruption would have killed all plant life thus leading to starvation, and damaged their ships leading to economic decline. It is also believed that during this time they were invaded, possibly by the Myceaneans.

2.The Anasazi

The Anasazi or Ancestral Puebloans were a Native American culture that emerged in the Four Corners area of the United States (where New Mexico, Arizona, Colordo, and Utah meet) around 1200 BC. The early Puebloans were hunters and gatherers who lived in shallow pit houses. Later they developed horticulture and began farming maize, beans and squash. Also found at Anasazi archeological sites are greyware pottery, elaborate baskets, reed sandals, rabbit fur robes, grinding stones and bows and arrows. In the Pueblo II and Pueblo III eras the Anasazi carved whole towns out of nearby cliffs like those at Mesa Verde and Bandelier or they constructed them out of stone or adobe mud like Chaco Canyon. These towns hosted many cultural and civic events and were connected to each other by hundreds of miles of roadways.

Where did they go?

Around 1300 AD the Ancestral Puebloans abandoned their cliff houses and scattered. Many scholars believe that, after a population explosion, poor farming methods and a regional drought made it difficult to produce enough food. Due to this lack of food, the Anasazi moved either along the Rio Grande or on the Hopi mesas, and therefore many modern Pueblo Indians believe that they are the descendants of the Anasazi. Recent studies prove that this climate change could not explain the decline of the Anasazi alone and suggest that social and political factors like a violent conflict led to their end, instead.

1. The Indus Valley Civilization

Dholavira Sophisticated Water Reserving. The ancient Indus Valley Civilization

Dholavira Sophisticated Water Reserving. The ancient Indus Valley Civilization

Once inhabiting an area about the size of western Europe in what is now Pakistan and western India, the Indus Valley or Harappan Civilization thrived from 3300 to 1300 BC, although the area was settled all the way back to 7000 BC. Despite being one of the largest ancient civilizations, not much is known about the Harappan civilization, mostly because their language has never been deciphered. We do know that they built over one hundred towns and villages including the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, each of which was built with an organized layout, and a complex plumbing system with indoor toilets. Evidence suggests that the Harappan had a unified government and that there were no social classes. There is also no evidence of military activity so it is likely that they lived in peace. They were skilled astronomers and were well versed in agriculture, growing wheat, barley, peas, melons, sesame and cotton (becoming the first civilization to produce cotton cloth) and domesticating several animals including cattle and elephants.

Where did they go?

There are several theories as to what happened to the Indus Valley civilization. Some people believe that they declined because of changes to their environment, such as a decrease in the size of the Ghaggar Hakra river system or the cooler, drier temperatures that are also evident throughout the Middle East. Another popular theory was that the Aryans invaded them around 1500 BC.

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  1. Gil Utanes y Calderon on

    “Everyone gets tired of reading sometimes so watch a video!” Perhaps…..personally though, I still prefer the essay; anytime.

    Thanks for the easy-read, “Top 10 Civilizations…..,” with impressive graphics/visuals.

  2. Reading this list makes me acutely aware that all great civilizations seem to fall. Its really incredible to think about what the Minoans were like in their day. They were a vibrant, bustling, and powerful civilization. The faded colors and chipped artwork that you see would have been vivid in its heyday. The people were clever, artistic, and curious. Now, the sands of time have washed them away, and it will wash us away too.

  3. As reported by National Geographic, “For instance, the Franciscan friar Toribio de Benavente—one of the first Spanish missionaries to arrive in the New World in the early 1500s—wrote that Mexico was initially “extremely full of people, and when the smallpox began to attack the Indians, it became so great a pestilence among them … that in most provinces more than half the population died.”

    It only makes sense that disease brought from other ethnic groups during war, exploration, … might have killed these other cultures, as well.

  4. I think that just like today the expantion of the universe and the time line has alot to do with the mystery. The most valuable clue that we have that each one existed are the actual dwellings. I would have to say that they found a better way of life through another dimention. in order to understand what went on, you have to focus on today. as we enter this new age of spiral belief , we are making some adaptive changes through our perspective. “Here and Now” is the best way to explain the sudden vanishing of divine cultures. They simply found a way to rise up to the next level of existance. and they did it in a concious manner. if the civilization as an entirety chose to become uprisen from the earths groundly laws, then they would do so. The drawbacks that today has, in regards to our civilization rising above stemmed from the Gender issue of the earth. In order to enter into the next levels we have to skip the 4th and the 5th, and enter into the sexto level of demention . there would have to be a symbol that would colaberate with the Male and Female gender. and everyone would need to understand it. Until this happens , we will never follow those divine cultures that were so lovely and worthy of the uprise. jesus aragon

  5. I think civilization of giants exited I have seen huge graves size 12 to 15 feet long in my city with the graves of some preachers came from different places mostly from Arab countries to teach Islam in India there is no dated document of it but I believed its true.

  6. modernKouros on

    I don’t have time to read all the comments, but the Mycenaeans most definately did not stem from the Minoan civilization on Crete. No one can actually say where the Mycenaeans migrated from, but the Minoans were already established well before then, and there’s archaeological evidence of many different peoples living on mainland Greece and the Cyclades after the Minoans had already become an identifiable civilization. Historians define these peoples’ development seperately: Helladic, Cycladic, and Minoan. The Mycenaeans couldn’t even write until adopting and modifying Linear A (which wasn’t a language, it was a primitive alphabet) from the Minoans to Linear B. Being that there’s evident “Mycenaean” activity way before they were writing down inventories of trade, your claim makes no sense. It’s not even a debated topic. There’s absolutely no evidence supporting the notion of the Mycenaeans being Minoan. The peoples we call Mycenaean were likely a hodgepodge mix of Indo-Europeans and (mostly) Pre-Greeks (speculative statement BTW, but on an educated basis); they also spoke an ancient form of Greek, have no architectural or cultural similarities with the Minoans (until trade began), and were a warring peoples. This is also why Minoans are not considered Ancient Greeks but the Mycenaeans, although debated, are (establishing ethnicity in these ancient times is an anachronism). The 1600 BC representing their beginning is understandably simplified, but some argue 2000-1600 BC BTW. Either way, you are implying the Mycenaeans left Minoan society, lost the ability to write, became polytheistic cultists of gods sharing only a few features of Minoan religion that merit only so much as the contact with them at some point, developed a pre-Greek language, created an original culture, and reclaimed the ability to write from the Minoans once again after changing their alphabet. And since the Minoans weren’t gone until around 1500-1400 BC and Mycenaean Linear B tablets have been found dating earlier, the Minoans just watched while all this happened even though they were sea-faring masters of their time. That would be a pretty sick joke that’s literally for the ages.
    I really want to see some sources because these claims you make I have actually never heard before.

  7. Has anyone herd of the large statues they moved to build cape Canaveral space center.a pre columbian group ?

  8. i was very much surprised to see the exclusion of IMBA HURU popularly known as GREAT ZIMBABWE in southern was a well established civilisation built by Shona masons.I might be slightly biased because im a direct descendent but please if you can,research on greatzimbabwe and you might just discover ancient civilisation in places you never thought possible

  9. Although many of these civilizations are no longer viable, as far as working governments, many of the people who made up these have actually been assimilated into many different cultures. This is due to many different reasons. Migrations, war/occupations, and political decisions during past centuries being the most glaring reasons.
    Many still are retaining their cultural names, such as the Maya. Many have been acculturated by their occupiers, but are now attempting to ‘re-integrate’ their traditions, and many others are fighting to keep or return to their origins, (as far as their countries, such as the Kurds, and the Vietnamese, who were the victims of political decisions made after WWI and WWII)….

  10. We don’t know who and why the disappear.The thoughts about this and the conclusion about this is, if those great civilizations disappear, could happened the same to us once again somehow.

  11. That’s alot of comments oh stumbleupon! u have did it again!
    anyway i got tired of reading so i decided to write this comment based on the few top comments i read the huge skeleton thing is all over Youtube research it!, “Amr Khaled” also recently made a series, on that which i think may be found on YT also. i also wanted to add, did u hear about the french scientist -dont remember his name, he is the one who inspected RAMSIS II pharouh of Egypt he concluded that he must have died drowning, lets just say he turned muslim when someone came along and told him that the Quran had already beat him to it. he wrote a book too. (research that too). The Quran is well above that level you put for ‘religous books’, yes i am talking to you athiests, if uve given up on the bible it doesnt mean u should give up on believing in God altogether, bec the Quran has already told us the bible has been polluted. so dont give up, i know its the easy way out by being an atheist, if u need proof, and not willing to put your faith, then evidence is out there, but u wont find it infront of you. and instead of acting like a smartass to people who have faith, go out there and learn Arabic as a simple first step, and at least try to proov us wrong. these are the positive logical steps to take, now being a redneck is not one of them.

  12. American in SE Asia on

    Regarding the Khmer Empire portion. It’s not “Devarajo”, it’s Deva Raja (from India – Sanskrit). And the “Ayuttaya” were not a people. They were the people from Sukotai that originally declared independence from the Khmer Empire and were comprised mostly of Tai people that migrated from southern China. Sukotai was subsequently destroyed after the Mon/Burmese Empire invaded (after the Tai declared independence from the Khmer), thus they were forced to move their new capital to Ayodyah (Ayuttayah) (named after the mythical city in Indian literature). So to conclude correctly, the roads allowed easier access to the Siamese (or early Thai people, before the country of Siam/Thailand was formed), but to refer to them as the “Ayuttaya” is not correct. They were from Ayuttayah and they were predominately of Tai ethnicity (Tai should not be confused with Thai, as these are 2 different things. Thai is the name of the people from modern day Thailand, formerly called Siam. Whereas Tai is an ethnic group of people that migrated into the region from south China about 1500-2000 years ago due to being pushed south by the Mongols. When they went south into modern day Thailand, they were incorporated into the Khmer Empire, but were more or less stuck in the middle of a war between the Mon and Khmer Empires that were battling for land in the region).

  13. I may be wrong, but i don’t believe Tenotchtitlan was a city until it was established by the Aztecs around 1300AD. The Olmec were gone several hundred years before the city was built.

    • Tenochtitlan was settled about 1325 CE. after an eagle lit on an organ cactus, giving the sign to the priests of the wandering Aztec (Mexica) tribe that this was where they were to settle. Although earlier tribes were nearby and the Mexica fought both the people of Culhuacan and Tenayuca, they did settle on Lake Texcoco, building their muddy, small town from the muck of the Lake.
      It was named after the High Priest Tenoch and meant “the town of Tenoch”. After several rulers and much improvement over many years one ruler was chosen by their inner council. This was MOTECUHZOMA iLHUICAMINA, [“Angry Lord” -“One who shoots his arrows to the sky”], the nephew of Itzcoatl, half brother of Tlacaelel (one a former leader, the other a highly respected member of the council). This man became known in history as Moctezuma I (or later mis spelled “Montezuma”. It was under this ruler that the Pyramid of Mayor and many other shrines were built.
      Both the Olmec and the Toltec civilizations or cultures had dissipated long before the Mexica (Aztec) arrived, as this tribe was the last of the 7 tribes (according to their history) to leave Aztlan (“The Place of Herons”). When the Mexica arrived at Teotihuacan, it was deserted, and had been for some time, thus the Mexica ‘inherited’ this ‘already built’ city of pyramids.


  14. Fortunate enough to have visited the Minoan site. Note of caution though – Arthur Evans dug through and destroyed Roman remains (I know! Terrible) and upon discovering the Minoan palaces etc. he arranged a great deal of what he found in the way he felt fit, so not necessarily an accurate representation of how precisely the area would have looked. Nonetheless, an amazing place to visit.

    • Most who study ancient history and Archaeology are pretty aware of what Evans did. This type of “Archaeology” was pretty common practice in his contemporary world at that time.
      But, much more modern Archaeologists are now working at many sites in the world, and in many they are ‘correcting’, if at all possible, what was mistakenly done in the late 19th and early 20th C. CE by the original ‘archaeologists’ (who usually were not academically trained in this science).
      Much more information on the ancient Minoan culture and civilization is now available via the work now being done on Crete.
      I have an article about this on my group site Egypt and Beyond……

  15. I thought the Queen of Sheba lived in what is now modern-day Yemen, not Ethiopia? What I’ve read suggests that she was Queen Balqis of the Sabaean kingdom, one of several ancient kingdoms that now make up modern-day Yemen.

    Anyways, regardless of which is accurate, this was a really fascinating article. Thanks for sharing!


      She is thought to have been born January 5th, sometime in the 10th C. BCE. This Lady has been known by many names depending on which language is used….”Balqis”/”Balquis”/ “Balkis” is Arabian. Flavius Josephus,(1st C. CE), referred to her as “Nicaule”, and stated that she was “Queen of Egypt and Ethiopia” [Book 8,Chapter 6 “Antiquity of the Jews”…. There are biblical references to her lineage as descending from Noah through one of two sons, either Ham or Shem. [Of course historians now know that the story of “Noah” was the Habiru/Hebrew version of a much more ancient story contained in the Sumerian “EPIC OF GILGAMESH”. “Noah’s much earlier Sumerian name was Ut nam pish Tem. This is also from where the ‘flood story’ emerges, which is believed, now, to have been caused by natural geologic tectonic actions in the Med.].
      Although the royal family of Ethiopia claim to be direct descendants, via a child born to her and King Solomon, (Menelik I), she could have been from either Ethiopia, Yemen or Arabia Felix.
      Recent archaeological discoveries, in Mareb, Yemen, seem to suggest that she ruled, in her own right, over this area of Southern Arabia…
      The “Saba” connection comes from a much more modern reference in Christopher Marlow’s “Dr. Faustus”, a fictional adaptation of ancient history.
      There are several later adaptations in reference to the Queen of Sheba and her origins and history…….One Xian version connects the country of “Sheba” to the Magi and the birth of Joshua ben Joseph (Greek “Jesus”), and archaeology and sat images have proven that at one time in ancient history Southern Arabia (now Yemen) had a thriving trade in the growing and selling of Myrrh to the ancient cultures of their time….
      [email protected]

  16. Appologies……I stated in my last message that ‘Petra’ was established as the Nabataean capital in or around the 6th C. CE (Common Era)….I meant BCE (Before the Common Era)….which has replaced the old ‘BC’

  17. It is thought by historians that “Petra” (later Arabic for ‘rock’), was begun as the capital of the Nabataeans in the 6th C. CE. The famous photo has always been referred to as “The Treasury” (Al Khazneh), but there are many tombs in the surrounding areas. Since this city was at the center of an important caravan trade route it enjoyed a fair amount of power and control over the route for several centuries.
    Most important to them was their control of the water, creating an artificial oasis. They had numerous flash floods, which archaeology has found were controlled with dams, cisterns, and water conduits. The name “The Treasury” came into existence from legends that pirates (bandits) used the large urn on the second level to hide their loot….and another claim that it was used as a treasury for the Egyptian king at the time of ‘Moses’. The name Al Khazneh is Arabic. There are burial chambers on either side of a ramp connected to the edifice, which was excavated in 2003. These usually are not shown in photos.
    There are varying opinions concerning just how large an area the Nabataeans may have held at the peak of their power, and it fell into many hands over the centuries…now being in Jordon.
    The deity Dushara seems to have been their main god, accompanied by his female counterpart. They also worshipped some of their ancestor kings…..much like Egypt and other ancient cultures.

  18. Interesting list. How did you pick which ones to include and which ones to leave out? If I’d made such a list, I’d have put the Elamites first, followed by the Hittites. But that’s me.

    Just a couple of quibbles. Languages are not deciphered. Writing systems are. The people of the Indus Valley civilization probably spoke many different languages, since that “civilization” covered something close to a million square miles of territory. But they seem to have used only one “writing” system. And it may not be a fully developed writing system, in the sense that Chinese, Egyptian hieroglyphs, and Sumerian cuneiform were.

    (P.S. Are you sure that Petra was the capital of the Nabataeans territory? I read that it was essentially a graveyard. That “Treasury” was somebody’s tomb.)

  19. I wish we could take care of natural and historical beauties and values enough. Everyday I see them getting lost and feeling really sorry.

  20. Caral is a large settlement in the Supe Valley, near Supe, Barranca province, Peru, some 200 km north of Lima. Caral is the most ancient city of the Americas, and is a well-studied site of the Caral civilization or Norte Chico civilization.It has aprox. 5.000 years of antiquity

  21. Amazing, haven’t heard of so many of these civilizations. I am really curious to the lifestyle of the Indus Valley, hope they can decipher their language someday.

  22. Actually…NONE…of these cultures or ‘civilizations’ really ‘disappeared’……they were all made up of unknown numbers of humans. These humans just carried on the way we all do. DNA and mtDNA may be useful in ‘finding’ some of those people…….but although their cultures may have been aculturated (into many others) and their ‘civilizations’, as such, may have ended….the people and their lineages continue.

  23. I think what youre calling Mayans is the Inca civilization. The Mayans are still around but Incas desapeared completely. Incas must be on this list.

  24. Tenochtitlán was founded by the aztecs in the 13th Century. It has nothing to do with the Olmecs.

  25. This is interesting, but the Mayans should be in the top 10 as well. They just up and disappeared with absolutely no sign as to what happened to them, where they went or why. There was no famine, no one conquered them, no fight, nothing. They just disappeared.

    • The Mayan civilizations were decimated by the Spanish conquistadores. Nevertheless, there are still 6,000,000 Mayans living in Mexico, Belize, Guatamala , and still speak the Mayan Languages. There is no mystery as to what happened to them, it is well known history.

  26. Just one criticism on your research on the Mycenaeans, despite the theory of invasion by the dorians still being by far the most prevalent, ‘popular’ is a misleading term because it implies the theory is the most correct, when in fact it has been concluded by most experts that the dorian invasion theory is not viable and that the tools and weapons associated with the ‘invasion’ are not sufficient evidence.

    • Nathan…you are correct in your statements regarding the “Dorian Invasion”.
      Archaeologists still have not proven…one way or another… just what went on in this ancient era. There are many opinions and theories, one has to admit, but it would probably be more correct to call it a “Dorian migration”…if it can be called anything at all.
      Differences in burial customs, linguistics, pottery types, tool kits and weapons….all can be explained in different ways.
      In that era of unsettled migrations in EurAsia and N. Africa….from Egypt, Minoa,(Crete), the Hittites…the Cycladians, linear B, …et al…….all could have had some associations with the changes in the area now called Greece…..
      I believe that the word ‘invasion’ was an attempt to explain the stories of Homer, originally, and from there became an ‘excepted’ view of what might have taken place… ancient classical Greek historians and then much later writers….but with no real archaeological proof…..

  27. John Michael on

    Just a snobby correction: it’s devaraja (the cambodian “God-king”). With an ‘a’ not an ‘o’.

  28. How about Gandhara?

    That was the Graeco-Buddhist civilization which once existed throughout what’s now northern Afghanistan and Pakistan, apparently established in the wake of Alexander the Great’s invasion route to India. if you remember about 10 years ago when the Taliban were blowing up those gigantic Buddha statues in northern Afghanistan, those were relics from Gandhara. They apparently built some good sized cities on the classic Greek plan, built some really huge Buddhist statuary and temples, and then disappeared..

    • Just to put in my two-cents…Angkor or better yet, Angkor Thom was the capital of Cambodia unit it was destroyed. The capital was then moved to Phnom Penh where it remained for several decades until disputes over who ruled the country caused the capital to be moved several times. It was finally moved by to Phnom Penh in the mid-1800s where it has remained.

  29. Edgehill Press on

    Exceeded the carrying capacity and then everything came crashing down – now why they exceeded the carrying capacity, that’s the question.

  30. Ummmm…..Easter Island, Cahokia

    I would have put both of those on the list before the Clovis

  31. Urban Ghosts on

    Always fascinating to read about the ancient civilizations, especially the ones that vanished! There are a couple here that I didn’t know about too so will have to do more research. Indus did reappear brieftly as a restaurant in my university town, but who knows what happened to the original!

  32. the annasazis definitely flew to outer space the blurb about them forgot to mention that all of the settlements they built were aligned perfectly with the movements of the sun and moon, thats some crazy stuff if you ask me

  33. over all its a decent list, but you need to fact check before post. the clovis are NOT the first peoples in North America, and they are NOT the decedents of all aboriginal peoples there. It is proven and accepted in the scientific community the “clovis first” theory is no longer credible. The land bridge shows proof of opening several different times. the first is is much older then the 10 000 BCE clovis.

    Also, the clovis are not considered to be a civilization, as they are a nomadic hunter gatherers. They were named after their unique fluted spear point. so in fact they did not “disappear” they did branch out into different cultural groups which then turn into what is classified as a civilization. the wrong definition of civilization is used here. It does not mean just a culture group, it means an “advanced” society in technology and arts reaching the level of state. state = civilization. fyi.

    • Interestingly too, the Clovis culture is no longer thought to have been originally centered in the southwest. Clovis, NM was happened to be where the common style projectile points were first identified. Later finds in Cactus Hill, VA, and other sites on the east coast of the U.S. predate those – with evidence of environmental change forcing migration.

  34. This is the best list on this website…very interesting.

    The Aad people that were wiped out (according to Quran) were very powerful but it does not say they were giants. The e-mails or websites that show giant skeletons found in Arabia are fake.

    • ya and what about the entire planet of Alderaan?

      was it really destroyed by the death star? WHO REALLY KNOWS!!!!?!?!?!?

    • Donovan had it right…

      The continent of Atlantis was an island which lay before the great flood
      In the area we now call the Atlantic Ocean.
      So great an area of land, that from her western shores
      Those beautiful sailors journeyed to the South and the North Americas with ease,
      In their ships with painted sails.
      To the East Africa was a neighbour, across a short strait of sea miles.
      The great Egyptian age is but a remnant of The Atlantian culture.
      The antediluvian kings colonised the world
      All the Gods who play in the mythological dramas
      In all legends from all lands were from fair Atlantis.
      Knowing her fate, Atlantis sent out ships to all corners of the Earth.
      On board were the Twelve:
      The poet, the physician, the farmer, the scientist,
      The magician and the other so-called Gods of our legends.
      Though Gods they were –
      And as the elders of our time choose to remain blind
      Let us rejoice and let us sing and dance and ring in the new
      Hail Atlantis!
      Way down below the ocean where I wanna be she may be,
      My antediluvian baby, oh yeah yeah, yeah yeah yeah,
      I wanna see you some day
      My antediluvian baby, oh yeah yeah, yeah yeah yeah,
      My antediluvian baby,
      My antediluvian baby, I love you, girl,
      Girl, I wanna see you some day.
      My antediluvian baby, oh yeah
      I wanna see you some day, oh
      My antediluvian baby.
      My antediluvian baby, I wanna see you
      My antediluvian baby, gotta tell me where she gone
      I wanna see you some day
      Wake up, wake up, wake up, wake up, oh yeah
      Oh glub glub, down down, yeah
      My antediluvian baby, oh yeah yeah yeah yeah

  35. no ‘great zimbabwe’ civilization? granted, you wouldn’t have much of anything to write… they were there one day. they aren’t anymore. they built a big fortress. 🙂

  36. The Indus Valley Civilization sounds like a utopian society….. No social classes, no need for an army, organized cities and government

    • It pretty much was. They are considered the most “modern” ancient civilisation. More so if you look at the architecture and level of planning that went into their cities. What this article doesn’t mention is that there were definite proof of planned architecture for all their cities. They had a common plan (Western gate etc). Great structures like the great bath at Mohenjo Daro. Even their streets cut at exactly 90 degrees, proof that intensive planning was put into all their cities.

    • You make no comment about the excavations of 1923 in the Indus valley and what was later determined about the findings reemembering what the inventor of the Atomic Bonb said at a press conference, maybe we have to be able to look past out noses.

      • Really have no idea what you’re comment means…..
        The Indus ruins actually began to be ‘discovered’ in the 1800s [1842 & 1856], but only a few mud brick remains.
        In the 1900s much more archaeological excavations were done and the first mention of a “Harappan Seal” was mentioned in 1872-75, but misinterpreted as being “Brahmi”….
        Mohenjo daro has been the scene of ongoing excavations up to the present.
        As far as the word “Harappan” ….it is a borrowed name of this area…and not what these seemingly city states or people called themselves….this remains unknown.
        It has been discovered a few years ago (it is thought) that their area of influence did cover parts of western India…at least some of the coastal areas….due to the discovery of certain artifacts associated with the “Indus Civilization”. (although there is no proof it actually was a centrally governed ‘civilization’)….
        There also have been several other ancient occupation areas discovered…now in Pakistan (which is due to the division of India many years ago)……
        I’m quite sure that the archaeologists who are presently excavating in both Pakistan and India are quite aware of what they are seeing…..but it is sometimes quite difficult to explain just for what certain areas were used…..One can only make educated guesses in some cases…….
        One thing is becoming clear……the old texts which refer to an “Aryan invasion” are probably incorrect…..and most of us should know there never was a “pure Aryan race”……humans in all areas of the Earth haven’t been a ‘pure race’ since the human era began!
        It is also a discussion event over which came first in this area…Dravidians or ? But, when studying ancient migrations one can assume that some early clans or tribes, (made up of several clans), migrated into these areas….from where is still a question. Early man began to migrate several million years ago and Homo Sapien sapien thousands of years ago……

        • From the work of Indian rather than British archeologists that I have read … The cities of the Indus Valley use the fire altars of the Yajur Veda and so on. In short they are Hindu but younger than the oldest orally preserved stories they have. Those are the Rig Veda which talk about the Aryans who built cities on the banks of the Sarasvati when it was a vast river. Today it doesn’t even run all year. Aerial photos put this at least four thousand years BC but the Rig Veda may be older than that by a stretch.

          So the Aryans of the Rig Veda could not have invaded cities of the Yajur Veda as outsiders. But we do know the rivers of the area were supplied by meltwater of ice age mountain glaciers. When these finished melting often the bared terrain turned streams that had run west into tributaries of east bound rivers like the Ganges.

          The 1600 BC date is based on the cities only beng 2000 BC in origin because all older works were wiped clean away by the Biblical Flood. Just because someone excavates first doesn’t mean they are really qualified to interpret the site best. In this case the first excavator was a Bible literalist for whom Creation was 4004 BC.

  37. CORRECTION: The Aksumites were not “was the first African culture to issue its own coinage”- the Ancient Egyptians were.

    Contrary to outdated theories by Eurocentric Egyptologists- the Ancient Egyptians were an AFRICAN culture- as their visual culture and language proves.

    • There is no definitive proof that the ancient Egyptians were “African” as we know them today. This is still under debate. I’ve been to Egypt and have seen many “caucasian” depictions painted in tombs and temples, though the Spinx has some Negro features. Your assertion is incorrect. Please leave your personal bias out of scientific discussions.

        • negroloid is an accepted term to describe certain facial characteristics. as are the terms caucasoid and mongoloid. Negro in this case is probably shorthand for negroloid

      • Yeah, I’ve always believed that ancient egypt was a very well mixed society with an array of different cultures melted together.

        • The Ancient Egyptians were predominantly a Semitic people like other modern Arabs etc. but they also mixed with Indian migrants which is why we have mostly caucasian looking peoples but with dark skin (Indian influence). Also, many of the names of pharoahs and other nobles resemble Semitic and Indian ones.

        • The controversy will probably always be present among anthropologists and Egyptologists as to what the ancient Egyptians of km.t was originally. Of course, now they are..and were for many centuries, a mixture of many ancient ethnic groups. It now is a matter of “AFROCENTRIC HISTORIOGRAPHY”, and has been as far as the ‘modern’? eras…..
          What is known, based on modern sat. images, is that there were 4 rivers flowing from south to north through the ancient Sahara at one time. All but one…the Nile…has disappeared…..
          People from these riverine occupation areas…now referred to as “The Saharan Culture”, (and by some “Libyans” although this would be a modern appellation), began to migrate into the Nile Valley…..these were already a mixture of ethnic groups by 5,000 BCE and many entered km.t, (“The Black Land” ..aka: “Egyptians” ; “The Two Lands” et al) from the south making up the prehistoric peoples of Upper Egypt. Their ethnicity is thought by most anthropologists as a mixture of many different ethnic groups, even then (5,000 BCE)……They are thought to have been the tribal groups from NEKHEN, the ancient capital of Upper Egypt, who began the events of attempting to unite Upper and Lower Egypt…….
          In Lower Egypt, another type of ethnicity had formed in the pre Neolithic period. These were a mixture of ethnic groups from the S.E. Middle East….among them the Indus cultures, along with several others….some Semitic and others Indo European groups. These formed the sun worshiping, (RE Cult of Inunu), of Lower Egypt,
          From the tribal totems of Upper Egypt, along with the deities used in the warrior/kings’ names one can see that when the predynastic, proto dynastic and Early dynastic titles changed, it also shows that religious traditions probably changed…..many don’t realize that the priests of the Dynastic Old Kingdom…controlled by Upper Egypt….were unable to read the predynastic or Proto dynastic glyphs (ie: ‘Sacred glyphs’ ….which do not use vowels)….or that even in the Old Kingdom, the use of hieratic glyphs, using both vowels and consonants for day to day useage was present and used in burials……these were NOT semitic in linguistic origins….. Original Upper Egyptian deities included HRU, (later Greek “Horus”), a sky/ fertility god…and NEKHBET, a female sky/ fertility deity
          In Lower Egypt, including the Delta area, the Neolithic peoples had migrated into the area, had begun their Sun Cult (RE) and also had added two fertility deities….ANEDJTI, a shepherd deity, (who was depicted as having green skin tone…analogous to agriculture and associated with the city of Andjet in the Delta)… one point in their history a migration from the Middle East brought AUSR into Lower Egypt… [later renamed “Osiris” by the Greeks]….
          When early unification attempts began from Upper Egypt in the early dynastic periods by several warrior/kings, (Khasekhemwey being one), deities were inter mingled…..and even as the many different cultures came together, their deities, although many changing as far as their ‘duties’…seem to all have been kept, or combined with later deities…….thus you have many cultures and ethnic groups, as far back as 5,000+ BCE along with their main deities….[each city had their own main deity…..and each hesep (Greek “Nome”) also had a main deity….[any ‘nationalized’ deity, (such as Amun), which only began in the Middle Kingdom, depended upon from just what area or city the ascending king happened to have been born or raised]……

  38. A little heavy on the academia self-stroking here if you ask me. The assumption that the Tryptillian culture was matriarchal is clearly based on a tiny body of evidence with more than one feminist “scholar” pushing a hard agenda. Quit your wanking. And we know how the Nabateans went out, and the Olmecs should have been like #2….

    • The Mayans are still around, a lot of them are married to people with Spanish heritage, but there are small villages of Mayan people still in Guatemala at the very least. If you’re thinking Aztec, they still exist too, although as far as I know they’re all mixed with other races.

      sources: my uncle is Mayan. My husband is part Aztec

      • There are also still native populations that have not been heavily married into by the Spanish or later peoples. And you’re right, the Aztec had pretty much the same thing happen to them as the Maya did, they’re still around but their way of living was completely destroyed by the conquistadores.

      • My Mom’s Russian and my Dad’s Roman…me, well I’m going no place in a big hurry…

  39. You missed the Tartessos, one of the greatest mysteries here in Spain.


    Nice article by the way…

    • Tartessos or Tartessus is mentioned by Greek and Roman historians as being a harbor city on the mouth of the “Baetis River” (now known as the Guadalquiver) on the S. coast of the Iberia Peninsula.
      Herodotus described it as “beyond the Straits of Heracles” (Gibralter), and the Romans tend to echo the earlier descriptions. Herodotus also mentioned the “King of Tartessos” as being “ARGANTHONIOS”, presumably named for his wealth (or weight) in silver….this could have been a title rather than a given name.
      Ephorus, a 4th C. BCE historian describes “a very prosperous market called Tartesses, with much tin carried by river, as well as gold and copper from Celtic lands.”
      Tartessos became important trading partners of the Phoenicians, whose presence in Iberia (Spain) dates from the 8th to 10th C. BCE. …and who built their own port, Gades (now Cadiz).
      “Tartessic” artifacts have been discovered near the city of Huelva showing dates of the 8th and 10th C. BCE. A new 2011 archaeological excavation project in this city is now on-going.
      Their linguistics were pre-Roman, of course, and classified under ‘Celtic’.
      The Hebrew name “Tartish” is thought to have perhaps been associated with this ancient city, but it could also have been a reference to Tartus in Anatolia (Turkey).
      Although it has also been sometimes associated with the “lost city of Atlantis”, this is not accepted by most scholars…
      It is thought by geologists that due to changes in the course of the river, and the buildup of the delta area the port became unusable. The peoples of Tartessian origins most probably melded into the Iberian cultures that had migrated into the area, and during the Roman Empire their language no doubt became Roman. Later it would be Spanish and Portuguese.

  40. The Nabataeans were annexed into the Roman Empire. Like all other Romans, they converted to Christianity, which made Petra lose it’s cultural significance, but still remained the commercial center of the civilization. After severe earthquakes and the Via Traiana Nova (New Road of Trajan) shifted the trade route to basically bypass Petra, the Nabataeans had no reason to stay and moved further North up the Arabic Peninsula and slowly assimilated with Roman citizens. No mystery behind it.

    • the Maya didn’t disappear, they are still around just not in the large complex city-states they once inhabited.

      • No dude its a pretty known the Maya disappeared, and its extremely well-known that it is one of the biggest mysteries of history and archaeology. Their written language had to be translated very recently which says that those who you are calling the Mayans of today can’t even translate and use their own language, making them not Mayans.

        • No Dude, your wrong, it is well known that there are still 6,000,000 Mayan people alive, and speaking their indigenous Mayan languages in Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala. Just because their civilizations declined because the Spaniard dispossessed them of their lands and enslaved them, and tried to assimilate them to forget their heritage. Thanks to no one, they did not succeed in stripping them of their Mayan Identities. You know Jason? History books, Google, and Wikipedia are your friends. I know you posted this a few years ago, but since no one corrected you in those years, I had too.

  41. I´d like to make a comment on the Olmec, the main ceremonial centers built by this civilization were La Venta, San Lorenzo and Tres Zapotes (in the states of Veracruz and Tabasco) Tenochtitlán was built by the Aztecs many years later and there is actually no connection between this two groups; Tenochtitlán, by the way, was built in what we know today as Mexico City, not that close to Veracruz….

    • The Olmecs were Of Africian heritage. They established a colony for trading purposes. It is said they were either recalled home or left to explore/settle in what is now know as the US….

      • wow troll, I only hope for your sake you’re joking and not really that dumb.

        Mayra, thank you for correcting the Aztec connection, that was bugging me too.

        • Showing disrespect shows a lack of credit on your part. If you felt otherwise, I would take your research more seriously if you produced reputable facts instead of calling others dumb.

          2nd, you NEVER want to discontinue one theory unless you were there to witness an event yourself. That would make you no different from those that “just KNEW” that the earth was flat.

      • There is no concrete archaeological or DNA proof that the Olmec were of Asian descent, although the great stone faces certainly do have both African and Asian features. It is postulated by some that they may have migrated, very early on…about 1400-1250 BCE into the western areas of Mexico, and they certainly predate both the Maya and the Azteca (Mehica)…
        There linguistics were somewhat similar to that of Mali… and their facial markings are similar to those of the Yoruba of W. Africa…Their culture lasted until about 400 BCE.
        Typical Olmec art included Jaguars, thick lipped soldiers, and goatee-bearded men, usually connected with jaguars and children.
        The believed themselves to be the ancestors of Jaguars.
        San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan in Veracruz was the center of their area of occupation. Another important city was La Venta in Tabasco.
        Many interesting Olmec artifacts have been discovered in their area of influence.
        One of their important items traded was rubber. They made it into balls. They also may have been the first to play ball games with these, as ball courts have been found.
        They had deities of war, sky, fertility and nature, had a 365 day year, cultivated corn and built their own style of pyramids…(many of these have been found to have been re-built around the originals for some ritualistic reason…adding to their size). They also traded cocoa to far flung areas of their influence.
        Their ruling class were associated with the gods of Fire, Water, Wind and Sun.
        The Olmec also believed that caves were sacred and built alters to their gods in many.
        Their decline is not really known, but theories, based on geology, show volcanic activity as well as a change in their riverine patterns, which they depended upon for irrigation of crops as well as occupation. The changes in their water sources would no doubt precipitate moving or migrating.
        Although ‘successor cultures’ can be traced to Tres Zapotes, on the western edge of their domain, which lasted well past 400 BCE… cultural connections or ‘hallmarks’ can be found……one can only guess that many of their traditions lived on in other later cultures…the jaguar class, ball playing, blood letting, pyramids, corn cultivation, sacred caves, writing, the long count calendar, the invention of the ‘0’ and the worship of the Feathered Serpent… et al in the ‘Epi-Olmec’ era found around Izapa.
        They, like many other cultures, did not ‘disappear’….they just migrated and melded with other cultures, passing along many parts of their legends and knowledge. Even their name…”OLMEC” is of Nahuatl (Azteca) origin…meaning “Rubber People”……what they called themselves is still unknown,[ although the name “Tamoanchan” has been used in contemporary periods, (Mayan origins, and some parts of the Mayan people, (HUASTEC) believed they migrated from the Olmec regions)….it is a legendary ‘paradise’, but could have been where they considered they came from… Perhaps their version of a ‘Golden Age’ . or their version of a ‘creation myth’…in their original land]. The reasons for their migrations from their own land to the western Gulf areas of Mexico are also unknown, as yet. But, with younger Archaeologists turning their interests to the Americas now, hopefully more information will become available……..

        • There is no genetic evidence that they are anything but Native American descent. There is zero evidence for an African or European ancestry. There is DNA evidence that the Mayans are the Descendants of the Olmecs, by phenotype and by blood. There is no reason to appropriate the the Native American identity of the Olmec with Zero evidence otherwise.

  42. “The Aksumite Empire began in the first century AD in what is now Ethiopia and is believed to be the home of the Queen of Sheba.”

    if this is a reference to the Biblical mention of the Queen of Sheba and King Solomon something is off on the date. King Solomon’s time would be in neighborhood of 950BC, or not too far from then.

    • In Aksom the priests maintain that they have the Holy Arch of Covenant given to Moses by God on the Mount of Sinai! They don’t show it to people exceptfor (if I’m not mistaken( once a year. In every church in Ethipoia there is a copy of this Arch.

      • It is the “ARC OF THE COVENANT”….NOT an ‘Arch’….which is an architectural structure.
        There are many claims to where the Arc of the Covenant might reside, but no one has any proven facts to substantiate their claims, as yet.
        It is the opinion of many scholars that the Arc may have been associated in some way with some type of electrical currant, based on biblical descriptions of the special clothing that was required by the High priest when visiting this artifact. Again, no actual proof.
        It is also thought by biblical scholars, and legend that it is supposed to have contained the original 10 commandments.
        Aksum is an ancient city in what was Upper Egypt in some eras of ancient Egyptian history, governed by an Egyptian Vizier, It was also the center of trade for the whole area of NE Africa.
        It has a fascinating history of it’s own….whether the Arc is located there or not……….

        • This is a picture of the coming Christ. Jesus Christ came and now this is really only another proff for many who would believe.

        • It can be spelled “Arc” or “Ark”. Both are accepted….”Arch” definitely isn’t though lol

        • Arc and Ark are definitely not the same thing. Arc is part of the circumference of a circle, a curve. Ark is a large boat or a large container. As in Noah’s Ark or Ark of the covenant. Definitely NOT the same.

  43. Is Petra the same thing as the place where the Holy Grail was kept (well, according to Stephen Spielberg..)?

  44. The Nabateans….if you read the Holy Quran, you would be able to find about this nation, they were the “Aad and Samood”….

    Huge people who were expert in mountain/stone carving. They used to make buildings like the one shown above. Even huge skeletons have also been found in the excavations.

    The entire nation was wiped out.

    • Where is the scientific proof of your claim? If giant skeletons were found, where are they now? The Quran is not considered a reliable source for scientific knowledge. If you have a secular source for your hypothesis, please cite it.

      • he was just pointing something out that was interesting, you don’t have to be such an ass. i don’t see any sources for any of the information for the article, you aren’t complaining about that.

        • Well the point here is that the quran isn’t a reliable source for archeology and taking offense with the obvious lie about large skeletons that were found, so yea he was right. This here is more about staying on topic than being interesting, cause i can name imaginary cities and facts too, but thats not what the article is about.

        • He wasn’t being an ass. He’s just stating that the Quran is NOT a scientific factual book, any more than any other religious book. If you don’t like hearing the truth, it’s insignificant to the facts.

      • You’re absolutely right Jenna! Isn’t it interesting how stupid men call women a bad word when we’re smarter than they are?! LOL I also call people on the FACT that they’re using fairy tale books to explain something that people like me have been studying intensively for 20+ years. Morons will always walk the earth because they seem to reproduce the most.

        • Well, although I thought Jenna’s comment was a tad aggressive, I didn’t think it was terribly rude. But your comment is horribly rude. Unbelief does not indicate intelligence; there are plenty of intelligent religious people and there are plenty of unintelligent non-religious people. Please have the courtesy to treat others with respect; it’s quite unnecessary to question Hamid’s intelligence just because he referenced the Quran.

        • It is truly sad that in the 20+ years of your “intensive studying” you failed to learn anything about common courtesy. As for morons, well, id rather live with the less intelligent than those with extreme ignorance such as yourself Julie

        • What does it matter that you have studied for more than 20 years, when you obviously miss the first 7 years of home education? I don’t think i read any of your books, nor do i believe you are a famous person. So i suggest you go some of the things wise men and woman said about education before you boast around, ok? Doctor?

        • Honestly, just leave hamid alone. You don’t have the right to critisize other peoples beleifs.
          Plus, Ive read the Quran and it makes references to the Gods of the Nabateans. Namely, allat, uzza and manawat. Which is amazing because the Quran was revealed several centuries after their (the Nabateans’) diasappearence.

        • Hello dr Julie ,the holy Quran IS a scientific proof , maybe not by you, however it’s the only book that say’s the name of a lot of Civilizations and how they where ended ,you may consider reading the holy Quran and you will see that only god knows it all ,in here i’ve respected you please respect my believes .

        • Ugh. Julie is right, but we don’t need the bashing.

          Thanks for making this list of civilizations, I’ve been looking for some history to incorporate in my sci-fi novel.
          I love the Cucuteni culture. It sounds like something that could happen after a culture decides that we must live within our means and not advance into the monsters we once were 😉

        • Louis Alexandre Simard on

          Are that insecure that you need to write Dr in front of your name. It is a great achievement but you are not publishing papers here. You’re commenting on a list based article. As the comment you’re talking about has been deleted I cannot now for sure what it said but can partially deduce it from your reply and I wish to point out that comment section of websites such as this one often harbour heated arguments which unfortunately

        • Louis Alexandre Simard on

          Are you that insecure that you need to write Dr in front of your name. It is a great achievement but you are not publishing papers here. You’re commenting on a list based article. As the comment you’re talking about has been deleted I cannot now for sure what it said but can partially deduce it from your reply and I wish to point out that comment section of websites such as this one harbour heated arguments which unfortunately often devolve in insults and/or grammar nitpicking when participants don’t have any valuable arguments to add. Men call each other many names and if one of the participants is female they might call her some other name. I don’t think it has anything with gender biases but rather general stupitidy. Reversed sexism is just as bad as reversed racism in society as it is not conducive to dialog. Think about it Your Honour… I mean Dr.

        • Louis Alexandre Simard on

          Will you call me misogynistic or a sexist pig because I have shown myself to be more educated, civilized, eloquent and intelligent than you. I sure hope not because it would cast you in a new light. One that shows you to be so insecure, damaged and misguided that you think all men are your enemy. Although I believe us to be equal I also believe us to be different. Women possess many great qualities. Qualities that are becoming more and more indispensable if our race is to survive the next couple hundred years. Qualities such as empathy, the instinctual desire to care for others, sensibility, creativity, a more profound connection with descendants and so on. I believe men has failed and that we need to do things in a more feminine way if we are to have a future. And I’m not talking about women who have coopted traditional male qualities in order to get ahead in this still patriarchal society. I mean a re-engeneering of society towards a more feminine viewpoint.

          Now I’ll be a little proactive in case haters want to hate. I am neither gay nor a sissy and I do have a very fulfilled sex life and there are aspects despite what I may convey there are times of a more personnel nature in which I like to take control. I just believe that men and women each have forces and weaknesses which are equal but different from each other and that the way society is organize right now it would greatly benefit from a more complete inclusion of more traditionally feminine qualities at every level.

        • Daniel wilburn on

          Yeah your right Louis there is to much reverse racism in this world. Like if your trying to describe what a guy looks like to someone to see if they knew him and in the description you mention that he’s black and that dude says that that was racist.

        • Dr. Julie Moskal on

          You seem to be the one who has a problem with a woman being referred to as “doctor”, mister. If you want the same reverence, go after a doctorate degree yourself. Until that time, sit down, be quiet and let the smart people speak. Listen, and you might learn something, mister.

        • Dr. Julie, if women are smarter than us, why do you insist on mating with us? lol, just a little, belated light humor.

        • Dr Julie you sound so arogant its not even funny, 20 years of study and all you can comment on is bashing other peoples beliefs and being sexist. Pull your head out your arse and maybe YOU will learn something.

      • ON the very contrast.Quran is our only viable source of lost evidence about lost civilizastion such as the ones mentioned above.Because simply you cant understnad nor stand up to the overwhealming facts the Holy Quran book has been giving us all these years about,Aracheology,scientific or anything…profes and lots of things including of stories and other viable historical actions moments and the fate of wiped out nations.You simply are a Christian and you feel so angry and mad that your books dont have any viable/strong Solid proof of such thing.deep in your heart you say,(god why did you give thos Saracens desert rats so many in their book,while us nothing)Muslimize yourself and you shall be purified.And after their death they shall be asked who is your god a true believer(a Muslim)will answer Allah,a Satanist non believers shall answer the two angels you you are my gods while the angels will strike in return,

        • In case you haven’t noticed, this article is open for historical debate, not for extremist Muslim views. Please be reasonable, step back from the historical evidence and/or event and have an objective view of it without your own biases. I’m a dedicated Christian and I don’t want Muslims to Christianize themselves as you have said Christians should Muslimize themselves. Everyone believes different things, and you should respect that. I also don’t think Muslims should rot in hell like you have basically implied for Christians. Please remove religious bias from your historical thinking because the Quran is a religious literary work and should not be considered a reliable source for most anything except describing the beliefs of Islam itself. I would usually not want to use the Bible as a source to explain history either, so please be fair,open-minded, and intelligent because with this comment you really just show your own ignorance and limitations within your historical thinking, if there is any in this comment to be honest.

        • Everyone has there own beliefs and spirituality. Muslims should not be forcing Christian’s to Muslimize themselves. Likewise Christians need to lay off the indigenous people of this world, just like they did and still do to the Native Americans. Indigenous people have their own gods and sacred places, just like anyone else. So Christians practice what you preach and lay off people who dont believe the same thing you do. the Clovis were not a race of people, its simply a style of spear points, a tool kit. There were preclovis tool kits and post clovis tool kits. Its nomystery as to what happened to the people who made them, they spread out thru the continents, and their descendents are the ones the immigrants met when they first came to the Americas ,and the rest is history.

        • She’s more than likely an atheist not a Christian you halfwit. I for one wouldn’t want to convert to a religion started by a butcher like Mohammed

      • Aad people the giant human nation are the ancient egyptians which built the pyramids and whole ancient egyptian gigantic buildings

    • No ‘giant skeletons’……they just assimilated into other migrating cultures…..the last being the Roman Empire, and were also assimilated or killed in the Islamic era.
      Their area of occupation was never actually defined by any borders. They were traders on a main trade route and took advantage of their occupational area.
      Their main deities were Du Shara..”Lord of the Mountain” [mentioned by the 9th C. CE historian, Hisham Ibn Al-Kalbi]……and one of the 3 main goddesses, Al-Uzza worshipped by the pre-Islamic religions of the area. She is mentioned in the Qur’an Suna 53:19.
      “Nabataeans” became the Arabic word for “Aramaeans”
      Her temple was destroyed by Khalid ibn al Walid in Nakhla, January 630 CE.
      His report:
      “Result……..successful operation, idol and temple of al-Uzza demolished, 1 Ethiopian woman killed.”

    • Bro: Aad people are the early ancient egyptians and builders of pyramids

      their language was the hierogylphy

      Iram zaat elamad = pyramids of egypt

      In egypt, thousands of giant human skeletons and mummies are discovered but still under the banned archaeology

      the western archaeologists are killing this truth of giants for anti-islamic mission,they dont want to give islam any archaeological evidence

      • Because its a RELIGIOUS SOURCE and not a historical literary device that has been proven true. Would you Muslims use the Bible or the Torah as historical evidence? The answer is definitely no, so you have to think hstoriographically, which means you should step back from the situation, remove all of your own biases, and have an objective view of history within context. Don’t be bias and not analyze history accurately by defending your religion when analyzing history. That’s not having historical thinking and I think since you would not believe the Bible as a historical source, which no religious book should be anyway, its EXTREMELY fair for Westerners to not use the Quran as a source. Fair enough?